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Patients were stratified by AJCC stage (IIIB, IIIC, IVM1a or IVM1b, vs IVM1c), ECOG PS (0 or 1), and prior immunotherapy (yes or no). Treatment was continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.1
Major efficacy outcome measure: Progression-free survival (PFS) by a blinded independent central review (BICR) (BRAFTOVI + MEKTOVI vs vemurafenib).3
Other efficacy outcome measures: Overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), and duration of response (DoR) (ORR and DoR per BICR).3
Hear noted oncologist perspectives on the treatment of metastatic or unresectable melanoma in adults with a BRAF V600E/K mutation
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WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
New Primary Malignancies, cutaneous and non-cutaneous malignancies can occur. In the COLUMBUS trial, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC), including keratoacanthoma (KA), occurred in 2.6% and basal cell carcinoma occurred in 1.6% of patients. Median time to first occurrence of cuSCC/KA was 5.8 months. Perform dermatologic evaluations prior to initiating treatment, every 2 months during treatment, and for up to 6 months following discontinuation of treatment. Manage suspicious skin lesions with excision and dermatopathologic evaluation. Dose modification is not recommended for new primary cutaneous malignancies. Based on its mechanism of action, BRAFTOVI may promote malignancies associated with activation of RAS through mutation or other mechanisms. Monitor patients receiving BRAFTOVI for signs and symptoms of non-cutaneous malignancies. Discontinue BRAFTOVI for RAS mutation-positive non-cutaneous malignancies.
Tumor Promotion in BRAF Wild-Type Tumors: In vitro experiments have demonstrated paradoxical activation of MAP-kinase signaling and increased cell proliferation in BRAF wild-type cells exposed to BRAF inhibitors. Confirm evidence of BRAF V600E or V600K mutation using an FDA-approved test prior to initiating BRAFTOVI.
Cardiomyopathy, manifesting as left ventricular dysfunction associated with symptomatic or asymptomatic decreases in ejection fraction, has been reported in patients. In the COLUMBUS trial, evidence of cardiomyopathy occurred in 7% and Grade 3 left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 1.6% of patients. The median time to first occurrence of left ventricular dysfunction (any grade) was 3.6 months. Cardiomyopathy resolved in 87% of patients. Assess left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiogram or multi-gated acquisition (MUGA) scan prior to initiating treatment, 1 month after initiating treatment, and then every 2 to 3 months during treatment. The safety has not been established in patients with a baseline ejection fraction that is either below 50% or below the institutional lower limit of normal (LLN). Patients with cardiovascular risk factors should be monitored closely. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue based on severity of adverse reaction.
Venous Thromboembolism (VTE): In the COLUMBUS trial, VTE occurred in 6% of patients, including 3.1% of patients who developed pulmonary embolism. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue based on severity of adverse reaction.
Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage can occur when BRAFTOVI is administered in combination with MEKTOVI. In the COLUMBUS trial, hemorrhage occurred in 19% of patients and ≥ Grade 3 hemorrhage occurred in 3.2% of patients. The most frequent hemorrhagic events were gastrointestinal, including rectal hemorrhage (4.2%), hematochezia (3.1%), and hemorrhoidal hemorrhage (1%). Fatal intracranial hemorrhage in the setting of new or progressive brain metastases occurred in 1.6% of patients. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue based on severity of adverse reaction.
Hepatotoxicity: Hepatotoxicity can occur when MEKTOVI is administered in combination with BRAFTOVI. In the COLUMBUS trial, the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 increases in liver function laboratory tests was 6% for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 2.6% for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and 0.5% for alkaline phosphatase. No patient experienced Grade 3 or 4 serum bilirubin elevation. Monitor liver laboratory tests before initiation of MEKTOVI, monthly during treatment, and as clinically indicated. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue based on severity of adverse reaction.
Rhabdomyolysis: Rhabdomyolysis can occur when MEKTOVI is administered in combination with BRAFTOVI. In the COLUMBUS trial, elevation of laboratory values of serum CPK occurred in 58% of patients. Rhabdomyolysis was reported in 0.1% (1 of 690 patients) with BRAF mutation-positive melanoma receiving MEKTOVI with BRAFTOVI. Monitor CPK and creatinine levels prior to initiating MEKTOVI, periodically during treatment, and as clinically indicated. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue based on severity of adverse reaction.
Modify BRAFTOVI dose if coadministration with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided.
Avoid coadministration of BRAFTOVI with drugs known to prolong QT/QTc interval.
Dose reductions of drugs that are substrates of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or BCRP may be required when used concomitantly with BRAFTOVI.
The information above applies to the safety of the combination of BRAFTOVI and MEKTOVI unless otherwise noted. See full Prescribing Information for BRAFTOVI and for MEKTOVI for dose modifications for adverse reactions.